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Matching problems have been increasingly apparent since 2014 and change the relationship between supply and demand on the training market. What are the consequences of this, on the one hand for the recruitment of new and specialist personnel and on the other for young people searching for training places? The background and consequences of these changes are the main focus of this BWP issue.
The training market situation has significantly improved for young people over recent years. Has this led to better opportunities for young migrants to find a training place? The present article looks into this question via a consideration of the training place applicants registered with the Bundesagentur für Arbeit (BA) [Federal Employment Agency] for the period from 2004 to 2014.
Behind the increasing matching problems on the training market are recruitment or supply problems which are very different in nature depending on occupation, branch and region. What are the consequences of this for companies and for young people interested in entering training, and what needs to be done at educational and employment policy level in order to bring supply and demand together in a better way in the future? Elke Hannack, Deputy Chair of the DGB, and Peter Clever, a Managing Director at the BDA, present statements on the basis of five thematic areas.
The training market situation has been characterised by two seemingly contradictory developments for a number of years. On the one hand, companies are experiencing increasing difficulties in filling the training places they offer. On the other hand, there are still too many young people who are unsuccessful in their search for a training place. It is clear that the fit between company supply and demand from young people is becoming ever worse. The present article describes developments in 2015 on the basis of central training market data.
This article investigates the extent to which differences in characteristics between dual training occupations contribute to recruitment problems in training place provision. An analysis is carried out of the effects of differences in payment, prior level of school learning and gender distribution. Reference is made to bridging hypotheses relating to career choice behaviour, according to which young people primarily perceive the learning of an occupation as a means of consolidating their social and gender identity.
Despite a strong demographic decline, there has been very little change in Austria with regard to the large number of young people who are still seeking an apprenticeship or else progress to extra-company training. At the same time, the number of firms providing training is falling massively, and the search for suitable applicants is becoming increasingly difficult and more costly for companies. This mismatch of supply and demand on the Austrian training market is investigated on the basis of various indicators and aspects.
This article relates matching problems at the transition to post-compulsory educational courses to the mismatch between educational aspirations and the actual educational pathway. Such a mismatch may arise with regard to transition to general educational courses or to vocational education and training courses at upper secondary level. The article describes which young people are particularly affected by matching problems within the first 18 months of finishing compulsory schooling and the extent to which matching problems change within this period.
This article presents the results of a study carried out in the local government district of Erding which investigates the challenges on the training market in a region which is economically successful. It highlights the causes of the mismatch between supply and demand. The outcome is that matching problems are revealed between the requirements and expectations of companies and young people. The article concludes by using this as a basis to outline possible solutions that are of significance to companies, municipal administration and education and training providers in the local government district.
In the light of increasing matching problems, this article describes the interests of various stakeholders and logics on the training market. Consideration is given to practical approaches which react to altered nature of the challenges with the aim of providing companies and young people with better support prior to and during the course of training. This results in requirements at various levels and principles for a successful balancing of interests, which the article concludes by stating.
Deutsche Bahn is one of the largest providers of training in Germany, and filling training places is a significant challenge that faces the company in the light of the fall in numbers of applicants. This article presents the diverse measures which the group has successfully introduced in order to acquire trainees.
Companies in Swabia are experiencing increasing difficulties in filling their remaining training vacancies. The influx of refugees to Germany may be an opportunity for companies to secure their skilled worker requirements. In December 2014, the Swabian Chamber of Commerce and Industry launched a project called “Young refugees in training”. The aim is to place young refugees in internships and training and to provide them with close support. The article presents the initial experiences to emerge from the project.
Analyses of potential are the first module of a vocational orientation process which begins in Years 7 and 8. The main focus is on the children and on their abilities, wishes and interests. In the light of growing matching problems on the training market, some are questioning the usefulness of this subject-based approach and wondering whether the young people should be shown prospects which are more clearly aligned to the future skilled worker requirements. The present article investigates this issue and is informed by views which have emerged from two guided group discussions with education professionals.
In vocational education and training, sport is a teaching subject which is neglected in both quantitative and qualitative terms by dint of the fact that it is viewed as forming part of general education or leisure time. Nevertheless, there are good reasons to strengthen the presence of the teaching of sport in vocational training. The article highlights possible reasons for the neglect of sport in vocational education and training and presents arguments in favour of sport as a teaching subject in VET.
In accordance with the remit contained within the Coalition Agreement of 2013 for the 18th Legislative Period, the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung [Federal Ministry of Education and Research] published a report on the evaluation of the Vocational Training Act (BBiG) on 23 March 2016. This article provides information on the procedure and main results.
In June 2014, a BIBB Board Recommendation on the competence-oriented formulation of training regulations entered into force based on the definition of competence contained within the German Qualifications Framework (DQR). This was applied in regulatory procedures for the first time in 2015. Starting with a description of the formal changes to general conditions, the article takes the occupation of roller shutter and sunshade mechatronics technician as an example to look at the nature of areas of action, self-contained activities and competence dimensions. Results are compared with the ordinance from 2004 and categorised with regard to further developments and areas of conflict.
Two cross-trade nationally standardised upgrading training courses, certified senior commercial clerk in accordance with the Crafts and Trades Regulation Code (HwO) and certified sales manager in craft trade occupations in the food industry, have been issued in 2016. They replace previous chamber regulations in these areas. This new regulation is an important step along the way to implementing an inherently consistent commercial career concept, which is presented in this article.
Federal Minister Prof. Dr. JOHANNA WANKA visited the “Parliament of Vocational Education and Training”. She attended the Board Meeting in the morning to inform the members about her education and training policy conception and to discuss the challenges and chances for vocational education and training. The main focuses were permeability, digitalisation, integration of refugees and strengthening vocational education and training.