BWP 2/2019

Routes into occupations

BWP 2/2019

The labour market in Germany is organised on the basis of the principle of the regulated occupation, and great significance is still accorded to vocational qualifications. But how successful are young people in entering working life after completing initial training? And –including in comparison to an academic qualification – what prospects do initial and advanced vocational education and training offer for future working life? This issue of BWP presents research results, company concepts and information on education and training provision.


Vocational education and training in figures

Ralf Dorau, Robert Herter-Eschweiler

Entry to the labour market after completion of qualification

How does integration into working life succeed?

read more

Germany has a low level of youth unemployment in international comparative terms. Practice- related (dual) training is often cited as a reason for this. But how do young people succeed in making the transition to the labour market and thus achieve integration into working life? This article uses data from the microcensus to analyse occupational integration approximately two years after successful completion of a vocational or higher education qualification.

Special Focus

Daniela Rohrbach-Schmidt, Christian Ebner

What role does personality play?

First results on occupational differences and wages from a recent BIBB survey

read more

The study of personality traits has received increasing attention in education and labour market research in recent years. Numerous studies show that personality exerts an independent influence on educational and labor market success. Against this background, a BIBB research project surveyed around 8,000 core employees from the BIBB/BAuA Employment Survey 2018 on their personality traits. Which personality structures and preferences exist in the current working population in Germany? Are there any differences in these structures between occupational groups? What significance do these characteristics have for labour market success? These are the issues addressed in this article.
Roland Löffler

Progression to work

Destination of apprentices in Vienna after training

This article uses exploratory evaluations of administrative data to investigate how successful young people in Vienna are in entering work following completion of dual training. It looks at whether young people remain at the company which provided training or within the sector in which they trained during the course of the first three years after completion of training, and also considers job changes, further employment and income developments that have taken place in the same period as a result of the training contract coming to an end. The aim is to conduct a quantitative study into short and medium-term labour market integration after apprentice training.
Tobias Maier, Stefanie Steeg

Dual higher education study or advanced training – what increases the chances of career advancement?

read more

Although the number of graduates with a bachelor’s degree has risen over recent years, little information is available as to which position such persons assume within a firm and especially with regard to whether they vie for company advancement with those in possession of the formally equivalent qualifications of master craftsman, technician or certified senior clerk. This article presents the results of a company survey, which uses a choice experiment to identify possible competition for appointment to project management positions between persons who have completed advanced training and bachelor’s programmes graduates (dual course of study).
Alexandra Mergener

Routes out of tertiary education into the French labour market

How successful is the labour market entry and subsequent destination of holders of a “licence professionelle” bachelor’s qualification?

The French system of vocational tertiary education includes both university-based and non-university programmes. Whereas non-university courses in France have always been more aligned to practice and are designed to facilitate a direct route into working life, university-based training has also received a vocational focus within the scope of the Bologna Process. The “licence professionelle”, a practice-oriented Bachelor’s degree, is the first higher education qualification to be created in France that links units of theoretical learning with phases of practice spent in the world of work. This article investigates how licence pro graduates succeed in entering the labour market compared to those with other tertiary qualifications, and traces their further destination over an initial seven years.
Duncan Roth

Frequency and structure of changes of occupation in Germany

For a considerable proportion of employees in Germany, moving to another company is frequently associated with an occupational change. The article begins by comparing the extent of mobility in individual occupations and goes on to describe the occupations between which changes frequently take place. Knowledge of how occupations are interconnected with each other may provide an initial point of reference in terms of career and continuing education and training guidance.
Anja Hall, Ana Santiago Vela

Training occupation and current occupation – on professional and qualification matches

read more

The current occupation does not always match the training occupation. Education-job match relates to the professional field or to the qualification level of the tasks carried out in the current occupation. If an occupational change has taken place, i.e. if training and current occupation are not the same, occupation-specific knowledge and skills may be lost, and the risk for overqualification may thereby be higher. Focusing on the relationship between training and current occupation, this article investigates whether, and to which extent, vocational education and training can enable women and men to do a job adequately matched to their qualification level. This also applies after an occupational change has taken place. The analysis bases on data from the BIBB/BAuA Employment Survey 2018.
Ute Clement

Work and employment of migrants in Germany

When can migrant workers be said to have successfully arrived on the German labour market? An exploratory study by students at the University of Kassel makes it clear that, although securing employment that is subject to mandatory social insurance contributions is necessary for indicating such a status, this may not be a sufficient criterion in itself. A more pertinent question is whether and how migrants succeed in establishing themselves in occupationally structured areas of the labour market.
Dagmar Greskamp, Michael Bien

The route into work for disabled young people

What support is necessary?

The unemployment rate amongst disabled persons is twice as high as the rate for those without a disability. Disabled people also need to search for a significantly longer period in order to secure a job. In 2017, the inclusion charity “Aktion Mensch” surveyed young people on their experiences of finding their way into work. This article presents selected results from the survey. It also describes another network called “Initiative Perspektiva”, which assists disabled young people at the second threshold.
Petra Hübner

Short routes in skilled worker training

Moving into work via second chance training in the SANQ Network

Second chance training offers low skilled adults new opportunities to acquire a vocational qualification and thus enhance their employment prospects. This route also opens up new and additional possibilities for companies to boost the supply of the skilled workers who are so urgently needed. This article describes the challenges and solutions involved in establishing a “qualifications-oriented modular second chance training” scheme. The programme was developed by the SANQ Network in Berlin.

Other Themes

Silvia Annen

Labour market integration of foreign skilled workers in Canada and Germany

Comparative findings from the healthcare sector

read more

This article investigates the issue of the extent to which migrants in Canada and Germany are able to use the qualifications and professional experiences they have acquired abroad on the domestic labour market. The information presented is based on case studies in the healthcare sector conducted in both countries. A related question is how the recognition process and the significance of occupational experience differ in the two countries and how these two aspects are determined. The results provide indications as to whether and in which ways the integration of foreign skilled workers in Germany and Canada can be improved.


Johanna Telieps

When specialisms fail to provide sufficient differentiation

Can a signal box dispatcher and a train driver be said to be performing the same occupation?

The rail sector is facing an important question prior to the revision of the training occupation of “railwayman/railway woman in operational service”. The current “specialisms” structural model has reached its limits with regard to opportunities to create differentiation. Separation into two occupations is also under debate, but this solution is not without controversy in the industry. Although tasks have diverged, close interlinking of the training of drivers and dispatchers remains important. This article describes the results of a preliminary investigation conducted by BIBB and illustrates possible options.