Despite many commonalities between the dual training systems in Germany and Switzerland, company training costs in the two countries differ significantly. Whereas many companies in Germany incur net costs, Swiss companies provide training in a cost-neutral way on average. The article discusses the reasons for the cost differences on the basis of a series of joint studies conducted by BIBB and the University of Bern. It begins by presenting system-related factors for the cost differences before moving on to examine the influence of general institutional conditions, particularly labour market regulation, on company training costs. The final section of the article discusses the significance of the results for academic research, policy and practice.