Sustainability 21st century’s main challenge, and the Sustainable Development Goals set out by the United Nations are a significant indicator of the scope of and necessity for global transformation. Such a shift requires extensive learning processes in the economy, politics and society as well as on the part of individuals. The aim of education and training for sustainable development (ESD) is to help people work together to shape a sustainable future. This article uses the results of national ESD monitoring as a basis for providing an introduction to the genesis, status of development and possible future pathways of vocational education and training for sustainable development (VESD). If the education sector is to be transformed in a way which meets the aims of UNESCO’s new ESD for 2030 Programme, it is clear that critical and systemic consideration of the future role of VET will be necessary.